Names of Animals and their Babies . Animals and Their Young Ones. Special Names: Baby Animals

               Names of Animals and their Babies. 

Cat : Kitten
Cow: Calf
Deer: Fawn
Dog: Puppy
Duck: Duckling
Fish: Minnow
Frog: Tadpole
Goat: Kid
Goose: Gosling
Hare: Leveret
Horse: Colt, Filly, Foal
Hen: Chicken
Peacock: Pea chicken
Sheep: Lamb
Swan: Signet
Elephant: Foal
Camel: Foal
Bear, Fox, lion, and wolf: Cub
Aardvark: Calf, Cub
Alligator: Hatchling
Alpaca: Cria
Antelope: Calf
Ape: Baby
Baboon: Infant
Badger: Kit, Cub
Bat: Pup
Bear: Cub
Beaver: Pup, Kit
Bee: Larva
Bison, Buffalo: Calf
Butterfly: Caterpillar, Larva, Pupa, Chrysalis
Camel: Calf
Caribou: Calf, Fawn
Cheetah: Cub
Cockroach: Nymph
Codfish: Codling, Hake, Sprat
Bird: Hatchling
Crocodile: Hatchling
Deer: Fawn
Dolphin: Calf
Donkey: Foal
Eagle: Eaglet
Fish: Fry
Fox: Kit
Giraffe: Calf
Gorilla: Infant
Hedgehog: Piglet
Koala: Joey
Monkey: Infant
Mouse: Pinkey
Owl: Owlet
Oyster: Spat
Panda: Cub
Rabbit: Bunny
Rat: Pup
Snake: Snakelet
Spider: Spiderling
Penguin: Chick
Kangaroo: Joey
Koala: Joey
Opossum: Joey
Wallaby: Joey
Wombat: Joey
Pigeon: Squab, Squeakers
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Use of specific words for certain places. Synonyms . List of Words to Describe Places

 Go through the following lists carefully

A. Places to live in:
  1. Convict: Prison
  1. King: Palace
  1. Lunatic: Asylum
  1. Monk: Monastery
  1. Nun: Convent, Nunnery
  1. Soldier: Barracks, Quarters
  1. Bee: Hive
  1. Bird : Nest
  1. Cow: Shed
  1. Dog: Kennel
  1. Fowl: Coop
  1. Horse: Stable
  1. Lion : Den
  1. Mouse: Hole
  1. Owl: Barn or Tree
  1. Pigeon: Dove-cote
  1. Rabbit: Burrow
  1. Sheep: Pen
  1. Spider: Web
  1. Tiger: Lair
  1. Priest: Presbetory
  1. Red Indian: Wig wam
  1. Eskimo: Igloo
  1. swiss: Chalet
  1. Arab : Dowar

B. Specific words for certain places;

  1. Wine is made in a : Brewery
  2. Wine is kept in a : Cellar
  3. Bread is made in a : Bakery
  4. Films are made in a : Studio
  5. Goods are made in a : Mint
  6. Leather is made in a : Factory
  7. Coins are made in a : Mint
  8. Ships are made in a : Dockyard
  9. Airplanes are kept in a : Hangar
  10. Bees are kept in an : Apiary
  11. Birds are kept in a : cage, an aviary
  12. Birds and animals are kept in a : Zoo
  13. Clothes are kept in a : wardrobe, closet
  14. Fishes are kept in an: Aquarium
  15. Curious are kept in a: Museum
  16. Luggage at a railway station is kept in a: Cloak room
  17. Motor cars are kept in a : Garage
  18. Weapons are kept in an : Arsenal, Armory
  19. Ships are kept in a : Harbor
  20. Archives are kept in a : Government building

C. Group  Terms:
  1. An army/troop of soldiers.
  2. An assembly of people.
  3. A ball of cotton or wool.
  4. A band/choir of singers.
  5. A bevy of girls.
  6. A board of trustees or directors.
  7. A bunch of grapes, keys.
  8. A bundle of sticks, hay.
  9. A caravan of merchants, pilgrims, travelers.
  10. A century of years.
  11. A chain/range of mountains.
  12. A catch/haul/shoal of fish.
  13. A muster of peacocks.
  14. A class of students, persons.
  15. A cloud of locusts.
  16. A clump or groove of trees.
  17. A cluster of stars, grapes, islands.
  18. A code of laws.
  19. A collection of stamps, coins.
  20. A company of soldiers, merchants.
  21. A congregation of worshippers.
  22. A consignment of goods.
  23. A constellation of stars.
  24. A course of lectures.
  25. A crew of sailors.
  26. A throng of people.
  27. A drove of cattle
  28. A faggot of sticks.
  29. A fleet of sheep.
  30. A galaxy of stars.
  31. A gang of robbers, thieves, prisoners, workmen.
  32. A garland of flowers.
  33. A group of persons, islands.
  34. A herd of cattle, deer, goats.
  35. A hive of bees.
  36. A litter of pigs, pups, rubbish.
  37. A multitude of people.
  38. A mob/ troop/court of kangaroo
  39. A pack of hounds, playing cards, wolves, cigarettes, bread.
  40. A pair of shoes.
  41. A pair of bells.
  42. A posse of policemen.
  43. A regiment of soldiers.
  44. A series of lectures.
  45. A sheaf of arrows.
  46. A shower of rain, arrows.
  47. A stock of hay.
  48. A stock of goods.
  49. A string of camels.
  50. A suite of clothes.
  51. A suite of rooms.
  52. A swarm of flies, bees, ants.
  53. A team of players, oxen, horses.
  54. A train of wagons, followers.
  55. A troop of scouts, horsemen, monkeys.
  56. A tribe of natives.
  57. A troop of dancers.
  58. A tuft of grass, hair.
  59. A volley of shots, bullets, stones, arrows, abuse.
  60. A yoke of oxen.
  61. A wreath of flowers.
Thanks for reading.

One Word Substitution In English. One word substitution for ssc cgl. One Word Substitution For Competitive Exams

 One Word Substitution In English. One Word       Substitution For Competitive Exams

One who is new to a profession:- Novice

One who studies things of the past :- Antiquarian

One who walks on foot :- Pedestrian

One who supports woman's problem :- Feminist

A man who has womanish ways :- Effeminate

One who is indifferent to pain and pleasure :- Stoic

A well experienced person :- Sophisticated

One for whom the world in his/her home :- Cosmopolitan

Principles of a political party :- Manifesto

One who is eighty years old :- Octogenarian

One who is more than a hundred years old :- Centenarian

One who lives at the same time :- Contemporary

One who eats human flesh :- Cannibal

One who is out to destroy the government :- Anarchist

High salary but no work :- Sinecure

Work but no pay :- Voluntary

One who acts against religion:- Heretic

One who is all powerful:- Omnipotent

One who knows everything :- Omniscient

One who loves mankind :- Philanthropist

One who hates mankind :- Misanthrope 

One in doubts:- Skeptical

A perception without objective reality:- Hallucination

A person who betrays a friend:- Traitor

A multi-talented person:- Versatile

A person who pays special attention to himself and his dress code:- Dandy

Excessive love for one's country:- Patriot

A school for infants and young children:- Kindergarten

One who draws maps and charts:- Cartographer

A person who is bad at spellings:- Cacographist

Capable of being wounded:- Vulnerable

Incapable of being wounded:- Invulnerable

A factory for brewing beer:- Brewery

A house for an Arab:- Dowar

A house of an Eskimo:- Igloo

A cluster of houses:- Hamlet

A number of stars grouped together:- Constellation

A collection of flags:- Bunting

A number of people working on a ship:- Crew

A place for gambling tables:- Casino

A professional rider in horse races:- jockey

A person who plays for pleasure:- Amateur

A person who plays for money:- Professional

A person who kills for money:- Mercenary

A person who imitates the voice/actions of somebody else:- Mimic

One who pretends to be what he is not:- Hypocrite

A person who has a special skill for judging art, music:- Connoisseur

A person who is devoted to the pleasure for eating and drinking and making merry:- Epicurean

A person who totally abstains from alcoholic drinks:- Teetotaler

A person who walks in his/her sleep:- Somnambulist

A person who has tendency/passion for stealing :- Kleptomaniac

Here are the link of some English books for beginner's

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single word for competitive exam. English word power. vocabulary. One word substitution

  • A group, especially in the arts, regarded as being the most experimental : Avant-garde
  • Land that does not grow anything : Barren
  • A bunch of flowers : Bouquet
  • A rowdy crowd : Rabble/mob
  • The act of spying : Espionage
  • A morbid fear of enclosed spaces : Claustrophobia
  • People outside a church, temple, or mosque : Congregation
  • A building for loading soldiers : Barracks
  • Line of beds in a school/college especially for students
  • An official bulletin : Communique
  • Something very bright and colorful : Flamboyant
  • A place where one lives permanently : Domicile
  • A language that is not longer in use : Dead language
  • A number of ships : Fleet
  • A list of books : Catalogue
  • One who eats too much : Glutton
  • A well experienced person : Veteran
  • That which is out dated or out of fashion : Obsolete
  • One who entertains  his/her guests well : Hospitable
  • Compulsory enlistment in the army : Conscription
  • A wide-open view : Panorama
  • Study of birds : Ornithology
  • A very lazy person, having no tendency to work : Maladroit
  • One who has special skill in judging art, music etc. : Connoisseur
  • A lover of books : Bibliophile
  • One who sells sweets and pastries : Confectioner
  • One who cures eye diseases : Oculist
  • One who deals in cattle : Drover 
  • One who cuts precious stones : Lapidist
  • One who settles in another country : Immigrant
  • One who carves stones : Sculptor
One word substitution is the most important part of any type of competitive exams. This will helps to get good marks in every exam.

Here are some book links for competitive exam.
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One word substitutions. One word substitution in english

 Deviation or departure from a common rule or standard = Anomaly

Elderly woman in charge of a girl on social occasions = Chaperon

Land surrounded by water as to be almost be an island = Peninsula

A group of islands lying together = Archipelago

A place adjoining a kitchen, for merely washing dishes =Scullery

Causing or tending to cause sleep = Soporific

An aythoritative decree or law of the government = Ordinance

The manner of operating or proceeding = Modus operandi

A full-sized model of a complete or partial human figure = Mannequin

A phrase or serntence that is comical or nonsensical because the speaker used a wrong word that sounded something like a right word = Malapropos

A plan for or the route to be followed on a journey = Itinerary

A time between periods or events = Interim

Originating or occuring naturally in the place or country where found = Indigenous

A swiftly changing scene or pattern = Kaleidoscope

One word substitutions

 Aplace where clothes are washed = Laundry

One who compiles a dictionary = Lexicographer

One who lives alone and avoids other people = Recluse

A room with toilet facilities = Lavatory

A fear of crowds = Ochlophobia

One appointment  by two parties to settle a dispute = Arbiter

To congratulate someone in a formal manner = Felicitate

Medical study of skin and its disease = Dermatology

A hard object used to support if any part of the body is broken or fractured = Tourniquet

A person who is interested in reading books and nothing else = Bookworm

Incapable of being explained = Inexplicable

A book/film produced merely to bring in money = Pot-boiler

One word substitutions

  1. That which makes it difficult to recognize the presence of real nature of somebody or something = Camouflage
  2. An instrument for measuring force of wind = Anemometer
  3. A place for keeping bees = Apiary
  4. A place for keeping birds = Aviary
  5. One who is too hard to please = fastidious
  6. A job without salary = Honorary
  7. A long journey especially by ship = Voyage
  8. A place wher government documents are kept = Archives
  9. A person who speaks on the behalf of others = Spokesperson
  10. A place  where clothes are kept = wardrobe 

One word substitutions

 Incapable of being corrected = Incorrigible

That which can be carried = Portable

That which can be eaten = Edible

Liable to catch fire easily = Inflammable

One who sells things outside = vendor

One who collects postage stamps = Philatelist

One who mends shoes = Cobbler

One who eats flesh = Carnivorous

The period between two reigns = Interregnum

One who is unable to pay his debts = Bankrupt

One word substitutions

  1. Promise given by a prisoner not to escape = Parole
  2. Aggressor in army =  Van guard
  3. Ephemeral ecstasy = Euphoria
  4. Property left to someone by will = Legacy
  5. An instrument for detecting earthquakes = Seismograph
  6. A word no longer in use = Obsolete
  7. A government which honors all religions = Secular
  8. A person who is very fond of his wife =Uxorious
  9. A book / paper  written by the hand = Manuscript
  10. A person who is suffering from a nervous break down =Neurotic
  11. A disease that ends in death =Fatal
  12. An instrument for seeing distant things = Telescope
  13. Incapable of being burnt = Imcombustible
  14. The plants and vegetations of an area = flora
  15. The animals of a certain region = Fauna

Substitutions. One word substitutions.

  1. One who is shy, timid and unwilling to face a situation = Hesitant
  2. The most capable part of the group, town or place = Elite
  3. One who is simply and easily deceived= Gullible
  4. A list of things to be discussed at a meeting =Agenda
  5. Too much official government formality = Red tapism
  6. A person/ nation engaged in war =Belligerent
  7. A person who always wants to fight =  Bellicose
  8. An exaggerated statement  = Hyperbole
  9. A person who looks at the dark side of life = Pessimist
  10. A person who looks at the bright side of life = Optimist

The English Grammar Workbook for Adults: A Self-Study Guide to Improve Functional Writing.

Regardless of your level of English, this is the perfect book that EVERY ESL student should read from cover to cover. If you want to master English writing, Michael covers everything you need. Each chapter finishes with a short quiz to make sure the reader has mastered the subject―pure gold. This book should be on everyone’s bookshelf.
Here is the link of the book.

The engaging, self-guided way to learn how to write better in English

Mastering English grammar can be a real challenge. But, with a little practice and patience, you can discover how to communicate better through self-study in your spare time. The English Grammar Workbook for Adults is here to help improve your writing fluency so you can gain confidence while crafting emails, cover letters, conducting daily business, and personal correspondence.

No matter your current skill level, this English grammar workbook has everything you need to learn essential elements, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, tenses, and beyond. Then, you’ll apply what you’ve learned to everyday situations you could encounter at school, at work, social situations, creative writing, online, and more.

The English Grammar Workbook for Adults features:

  • Fun & functional―This clear, concise book is essential for ESL/EFL and other grammar students who want to work on writing English.
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Michael's taken 25 years of teaching experience and skillfully condensed his most practical explanations about English grammar into an easy-to-use reference guide with simple to understand concepts and real-world examples that learners can immediately apply in their writing. The workbook is a great refresher for intermediate to advanced students who want to clear up any lingering doubts about essential grammar points.” 
This self-study guide can help you improve your English conversation and writing skills. This book has everything you need to learn essential elements, including nouns, verbs, tenses, and beyond. Then, you’ll apply what you’ve learned to everyday situations.

Also available is ESL Games For The Classroom, which is Michael's book for ESL teachers. This handy book contains 101 interactive activities to engage your students with minimal preparation time. This book makes it easy to motivate your students to learn English.

Thanks for reading.

One- word substitutions

  •  A traitor who can sell out even his fried = Judas
  • Exclusive control or possession of any one thing= Monopoly
  • A medley or heterogeneous mixture of great variety = Potpourri
  • A language of  a region  having its own usage =  Dialect
  • An airplane with one pair of wings = Monoplane
  • A loud mouthed turbulent kind of woman = Virago
  • An embarassing  kind of mistake =A faux pas
  • One who is interested in the welfare of other people =Altruist
  • To relax in the countryside far away from the humdrum of town - Rusticate
  • A tendency to put off events/postpone events =Procrastinate
  • One who gets pleasure on others' trouble and pain = Sadistic
  • One who looks at everything from a personal point of view = Egocentric 

One- word substitutions

  1. A slang for the underworld =Argot
  2. Something perfectly neat and clean= Immaculate
  3. An excuse for something = Alibi
  4. The money that a court asks a man to pay to his divorced or legally separated wife= Alimony
  5. A speech made by one person= Monologue
  6. An obsession of one idea = Monomania
  7. Washing of the human body especially in a religious ceremony = Ablution
  8. A payment not legally binding but for which some moral obligation is felt = Ex gratia
  9. One who believes in keeping things as they are = Conservative
  10. A tall, strong, masculine kind of woman = Amazon


One-word Substitutions 
A collection of people:
  1. at a lecture or concert            = audience
  2. at a match                              = spectators
  3. in the street                            = crowd
  4. in a riot                                  = mob
  5. in a church, mosque, temple = congregation
  6. in a rowdy scene                   = rabble
  7. watching a TV programme  = viewers
  8. attending a funeral               = mourners
  9. listening to a broadcast programme = listeners

Changing prose forms into Dialogues

 Prose form

     Herbert is talking to his mother, mrs. Sunbury. He addresses his mother and tells her that he has asked a young lady to come to the following day. He inquired her if that is all right. Mrs. Sunbury responds surprisingly what he has done. Herbert says she has heard what he has done. Then  Mrs. Sunbury asks him politely who the girl is and how he got to know  her. Herbert anwers her name is Bevan. He says her full name Betty Bevan. He continues met her at the picture. His  meeting to her was like an accident. At the picture she was sitting next to him and she dropped her bag. Then, he picked her bag up. She thanked him for this help  and so naturally they got talking. After listening his story, Mrs. Sunbury asks him if he means to tell her (Mrs. Sunbury) he fell for an old trick like that. She exclaims she has dropped her bag indeed. When her mother questions about the girl, Herbert tries to persuade his mother and says she is making a mistake. The girl is nice and she is really educated too.

 From the above mentioned paragraph the following dialogue is constructed:


Herbert           : Mum, I've asked a young lady to come to tea tomorrow. Is that all right?

Mrs. Sunbury :  You done what?

Herbert           :You heard, 'Mum'.

Mrs. Sunbury :And may I ask who she is and how you got to know her?

Herbert           :Her name's Bevan, Betty Bevan and I met her at the picture. It was an accident like. She                           was sitting next to me and she dropped her bag and I picked it up and she said 'thank                               you' and so naturally we got talking.

Mrs. Sunbury :And do you mean to tell me you tell for an old trick like that? Dropped her bag indeed!

Herbert            : You're making a mistake mum, She is a nice girl- She is really educated too.

Changing Dialogue into Prose forms

 While changing dialogues into prose forms, we should bear the rules and conventions of changing the direct speech into indirect speech. Furthermore, the semantic totality of the dialogue is supposed to be considered as a respective factor. The information given inside the brackets should be, if necessary , included in the prose form.Let's study the following dialogues along with their respective prose forms and try to generalize how to change dialogues into prose forms.

 Example: I

  A conversation between an employer and employee:

Mrs Pradhan  :  You're late again, Mr. Suresh.

Suresh            :   I'm sorry, madam. I missed my bus. 

Mrs Pradhan  :   This is the third time. You'd better not be late again.You understand?

Suresh            :   Yes, madam.

Mrs. Pradhan  :Right. Did you finish the work I gave you the day before yesterday?

Suresh            :No.... I'm...

Mrs.  Pradhan: You ought to take your job more seriously, Mr Suresh.

Suresh           : Yes, madam. Actually my wife was ill and...

Mrs. Pradhan :No, excuse, please. Here's a piece of advice. Why don't you look for another job? 

                        The job here doesn't suit you.

Suresh           :Please, madam. Give me a chance.

Mrs  Pradhan :I don't think.....

Suresh            :Please, madam, please. I'll never be late again.

Mrs. Pradhan:All right.This is your last chance, then.You can go now.

Suresh          :Thank you. Thank you very much.

Prose form

         The employer Mrs. Pradhan  told the employee Suresh that he  was late again. He apologized and added that he had missed his bus. She again warned him not to be late again because it was third time and he agreed it. Then mrs. Pradhan asked him whether he had finished the work she had given him the previous day, but he replied he had not. He wanted to give clarification but mrs. pradhan stopped, and she suggested him to take the job more seriously. He tried to convice her giving clarification that his wife had been unwell and he had to wait for her, perhaps.But Mrs Pradhan didnot want to excuse him and advised that he had to look for another job which would be suitable for him because that job didnot suit him. He begged for excuse very poiletly and requested for a chance, and promised that he would not be late again. Then Mrs. Pradhan excused him as the last chance. At last, Suresh thanked her very much,

Appropriate use of punctuations

 Punctuation marks have a crucial role in making the sense of the dialogue clear. Therefore, they must be used property while composing the dialogues.


 The conversation must correspond to the circumstances in which it takes place. Here, consistency refers to the quality of having agreement and being unchanging. The expressions must match with the circumstances in which the dialogue takes place. If the participants are in formal relation they have to use formal language and vice-versa. Therefore, 'consistency refers to agreement and uniformity.

Grammatical correctness

 In the sense of colloquialisms, grammatical correctness should not be neglected. Colloquialisms should  be introduced only to a permissible limitation. Grammatically correct sentences are amply clear to the receiver because a grammatical structure certainly serve at least a language function.


 A dialogue should be short or brief. But it diesnot mean that if their lacks coverage,it will be complee dialogue. The number of exchanges depends on some responsible factors such as the topics of the conversation, role of the participants and so on. Brevity refers to shortness along with clarity.


 All the sentence should be clear. There should be no room for ambiguity. Very long sentences can be confusing to understand because they can be ambiguous.The expressions without clarity cannot convey the message to the reciver properly.